Relay Technician Training Boot Camp



PGE’s Relay Technician Boot Camp is a program to prepare entry level technicians for their careers in the utility industry. Our program pours intensive training into new graduates over the course of eight weeks. These efforts propel their careers off to a great start, producing quality entry level technicians who can provide great impact and produce excellence for the industry. 

Training Curriculum

  • Welcome to New Graduates
  • Onboarding / HR / Benefits
  • Expectations
  • Introduction to Human Performance
  • Introduction to Safety, CPR & Smith Driving
  • NFPA70E
  • Electrical Safety

Power Systems 101 Seminar is a stand-alone class that has been specifically developed  for engineers, engineering technicians and field relay technicians. It aims to provide attendees with a strong basis of knowledge in relay protection philosophy and design theory.

Training Curriculum

Power Systems 101 is an intense four (4) day relay technician training course, eight (8) hours per day, which covers the following curriculum:

Substation Layouts & Protection Zone Diagrams

  • Transmission system overview
  • Types of generation
  • What is a fault?
  • Substation layouts
  • Protection zone diagrams

Functional Diagram Exercise

  • Hands-on functional diagram
  • Line protection
  • Bus protection
  • Transformer protection
  • Breaker failure
  • Lockouts

Current Transformers

  • CT basics
  • Ratios
  • CT classes T&C
  • CT ratings
  • Saturation current and curves
  • Equivalent circuits
  • CT Testing
  • IEEE standards

Breaker Control

  • Mechanical operation
  • Trip circuits
  • Close circuits
  • An -pump circuits
  • Reclosing
  • Specifications and ratings
  • Alarms
  • IEEE standards

Relay Philosophies I Seminar


  • Types of bus differentials
  • KCL theory
  • Differential CT circuits
  • Calculating current in differential circuits
  • Mismatched CTs
  • Rolled CTs
  • CT polarity
  • High impedance differential application
  • IEEE Standards

Transformer Protection

  • Transformer theory
  • Equivalent circuit
  • Types of transformers
  • Transformer losses
  • Transformer ratings
  • Tap changes
  • IEEE Standards

Line Protec on

  • Physical characteristics of transmission lines
  • MHO circle
  • Theory of impedance protection
  • Zones of protection
  • POTT, PUTT, DCB, & DCUB end-to-end schemes
  • Reliability and security
  • IEEE standards

Breaker Failure

  • Breaker failure initiates
  • Current requirements
  • Breaker position
  • Critical clearing time
  • System stability
  • Various breaker failure logic schemes

Training Curriculum

  • Design Types, Breaker Orientation, Transformer Types, Nameplates, Clearances, AC/DC Elementary 
  • Protection Options, Relay Connections, CT/PT Ratios, Technical Math, Relay Connections, In Service Readings 
  • 351 Settings & Automated Testing 
  • Distribution Relay Testing 
  • SEL Program Usage 
  • Hands on Relay Testing 
  • RTS 
  • Protection on Suite 

Transformer, Bus & Line Protection Focus 

  • Protection Type, 87B, Overcurrent, Feeder, Transformer 
  • CT Testing, CT Circuit Checks, PT Circuit Checks 
  • Protection Types, Distance 21, Line Differential, Breaker Failure, Transfer Trip, POTT, Logic 
  • Carrier Testing, Relay Communication 
  • SEL 421 Setting & Automated Testing 

Commissioning Focus

  • AC & DC Secondary Circuit Commissioning
  • DC Control Testing, Print Red Lines, Highlighting
  • Functional Testing, Panel & Wire Testing
  • Trip Checking Lake Sumter
  • Troubleshooting Lake Sumter
  • Site Visit

Relay Philosophies II Seminar

Training Curriculum

Power Systems 102 is an intense four (4) day course, eight (8) hours per day, which covers the following curriculum:

Generator Theory

  • Types of generators
  • Steam turbines
  • AC generators
  • Synchronous generators
  • Parts of generators
  • Power plant efficiency

Generator Protection

  • Stator, rotor, field, overcurrent, distance, differential protection
  • Sub-harmonic injection
  • Stator ground fault protection
  • IEEE standards

Capacitor Banks

  • What is a capacitor bank?
  • Types of capacitor banks
  • Capacitor bank configurations
  • Capacitor bank design
  • Modern protection considerations and applications
  • Capacitor bank protection based on IEEE standards

Reactor Banks

  • Ferranti effect
  • Types of reactor banks
  • Reactor bank control
  • Reactor bank protection
  • Reclosing
  • IEEE standards


  • Basic function of underfrequency
  • Power system dynamic
  • Example of application
  • ERC guidelines
  • Historic examples

DC Systems

  • DC theory
  • Battery theory
  • Battery sizing
  • Battery chargers
  • DC panels
  • Dual battery systems
  • Redundancy
  • Testing and maintenance practices

Distribution Protection

  • Layouts: main- e-main, main-main, high density
  • Protective devices – 50, 51, 67, etc.
  • Distribution networks
  • Feeder level regulation vs bus level regulation
  • Distributed genera on
  • Reclosing practices
  • Hot line tag
  • Coordination with downstream devices
  • Distance to fault
  • Smart grid


Relay Philosophies II Seminar

Overview of Electric Utility Communication Systems

  • Timeline to electric utility industry communications milestones
  • Substation communication critical performance needs

Power Line Carrier

  • Types of power line carriers (ON-OFF, FSK) and relay applications
  • Power line carrier system components
  • Phase-ground coupling vs phase-phase coupling
  • PLC performance evaluation exercise
  • IEEE standards

Scada Systems

  • Overview
  • Dual master and NERC rules
  • Scan rate requirement considerations
  • Scan rates
  • Physical port connections
  • Serial vs Ethernet
  • DNP 3 protocol primer
  • Data transfer IED and SCADA master
  • Smart grid impacts

Communications Focus

  • Carrier POTT, DCB, Transfer Trip
  • SCADA Systems
  • RTAC, Protec on Suite
  • Human Performance Continued

Graduation Week

  • Field Trip Panel Manufacturer
  • Energy Control Center
  • Program Review Q&A
  • OSHA 30 Certificates
  • Student Presentations
  • Graduation Program
  • Assignments




Upon graduation from the Relay Technician Boot Camp participants will be able to contribute to the success of projects in the following ways:




  • Know and demonstrate Pre-job briefing leadership behaviors
  • Be able to implement effective communication techniques
  • Be trained to observe work zones and identify hazardous conditions
  • Understand and demonstrate safety ownership
  • Be OSHA 30 certified

Human Performance

  • Understand what is Human Performance
  • Understand error modes, error traps and mental modes
  • Learn to implement error reduction techniques
  • Understand “actively caring enough to intervene” requirements

Identification and Awareness

  • Know the function of all substation components
  • Be able to identify all substation components
  • Be able to understand equipment name plate data
  • Be able to identify proper grounding techniques
  • Understand and validate equipment physical placement & phasing

Procedure & Risk Assessment

  • Be able write and validate isolation guidelines
  • Be able to assist in the creation of risk assessments
  • Understand concurrent and independent verification
  • Be able to assist in the execution of written procedures


  • Be able to test current transformers
  • Be able to validate CT & PT secondary connections to protective systems
  • Be able to install settings files to relays
  • Be able to execute automated soft ware routines
  • Be able to transfer files and store per customer specification
  • Be able to assist in functional testing of protection schemes