Power Systems 104

Relay Commissioning II: Relay Schemes and Testing Calculations

September 1-3 | Denver, CO

Training Curriculum

Power Systems 104 is an intense three (3) day course, eight (8) hours per day, which covers the following curriculum:


Applying Trig Functions to the World Of Relays / 1 CEH / 1 CTD

  • Trig functions used for meter and relay calculations
  • Law of sines used to find the boundary of a lens characteristic
  • Law of cosines used to find “Delta-V” in Sync check relays


Introduction to Basic Logic Functions / 1 CEH / 1 CTD

  • AND gate and its equivalent DC circuit
  • OR gate and its equivalent circuit
  • NOT gate and its equivalent circuit


Discovering Transformers / 2 CEH / 2 CTD

  • Discovering the polarity of transformers
  • Discovering current transformers
  • Discovering that VA of transformers is the same on HV and LV sides
  • 87T relay schemes need to compensate for equal VA on both sides of the transformer

  • Delta-Y or Y-Delta transformers have a 30 degree shift, where does it come from?
  • 87T relay schemes need to compensate for that 30 degree shift



Quadrant Diagrams, Math Operators and Directionality / 1 CEH / 1 CTD

  • When to use X-Y diagrams
  • When to use R-X diagrams
  • When to use P-Q diagrams
  • Discussion of power system events and faults


Converting Values for Relay Tests / 1 CEH / 1 CTD

  • Primary ohms to secondary ohms conversion
  • Polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates conversions


Reactance Changes Everything! / 2 CEH / 2 CTD

  • Watts calculation
  • VARS calculation (what is a VAR anyway?)
  • Line angle and power factor
  • Line constants, operating quantities, angle of max torque and operating characteristics


Calculating Phase-to-Phase Values / 4 CEH / 4 CTD

  • Step distance concept
  • Errors in protection systems
  • When to use the square root of three (and when NOT to)
  • Calculate any phase-to-phase value (without the square root of three)


Calculating Symmetrical Components / 4 CEH / 4 CTD

  • Positive sequence calculation
  • Negative sequence calculation
  • Zero sequence calculation
  • Fuse failure/ loss of potential circuits

  • Forcing neutral current
  • Directional units
  • Zero sequence detector circuits


Calculating Apparent Fault Impedance / 2 CEH / 2 CTD

  • Phase-to-phase fault calculation
  • Introduction to zero sequence compensation factor coupling
  • Phase-to ground fault calculation
  • 3-phase fault calculation


Impedance Plots / 2 CEH / 2 CTD

  • Draw load vectors or fault vectors on X-Y diagram
  • Perform the math from Ohm’s Law
  • Draw load Z or fault Z plot on R-X diagram


Views of a Fault / 2 CEH / 2 CTD

  • Phase vectors on X-Y diagram
  • Impedance plots on R-X diagram
  • Symmetrical component vector comparisons
  • Sine waves can be examined

  • Harmonics can be examined

Relays by the Numbers / 2 CEH / 2 CTD

  • Relays by IEEE device number
  • Discussion of Mho circles and testing device 21 relay
  • Discussion of 87T tests
  • Discussion of generic testing requirements for other relays by IEEE device number

  • Discussion of NERC PRC 5 requirements of microprocessor relays




Register for $825

Seminar + Printed Book

The pricing includes all instruction, a flash drive with e-copy of the curriculum, breakfast and snacks each day of the seminar, and evening social events. A printed book of the curriculum can be purchased for an additional $100 per person. Seating is limited.

Springhill Suites Denver Downtown
1190 Auraria Parkway
Denver, CO 80204

Driving Directions


Book Your Room
Book by August 1, 2019 for $199 per night discounted room rate.

Call 303-705-7300 and for the Power Grid Engineering, LLC room block. 

Sessions 8 a.m. - 5 p.m.

Contact Information
[email protected]
Power Grid Engineering
321-244-0170 x-348


Who should attend the PGE Power Systems Seminars?

  • Electric Power Utility Engineers
  • Relay Technicians
  • Test Engineers
  • University Power System Educators
  • Protection & Control Engineers
  • Engineers Seeking CEHs & Graduate Students

What are the benefits of attending?

  • Learn from subject matter experts
  • Small class sizes of up to 50 attendees allows for dynamic classroom discussion
  • Network with other industry professionals
  • Discounted guest room rates at host hotels
  • Course registration fees include electronic curriculum, breakfast, snacks, andevening social activities
  • Earn CEH credits to maintain your PE license or earn CTDs for NETA Certification.

CEH Credits

The Power Systems Seminars have been approved by the Florida Board of Professional Engineers for continuing education hours. Power Systems 101, 102, and 103 have been approved for 32 continuing education hours; Power Systems 104 has been approved for 24. For attendees seeking PE credits for other states, please check your state’s CEH regulations.


The Power Systems 101, 102, and 103 courses are eligible for 32 NETA Continuing Technical Development Credits (CTDs) and Power Systems 104 is eligible for 24 NETA Continuing Technical Development Credits (CTDs). NETA Certified Technicians (Level III and Level IV) are required to earn a minimum of 48 CTDs every three years to maintain their certification. For more information about the CTD program and requirements, please contact the NETA office at [email protected] or 888-300-6382.

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